Agrarian Centers and the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China, 5000–481 BCE

A species of grass cultivated for its edible white seeds and as hay for animal feed.

Philosophical concept that developed in China in which a dynasty's right to rule depends on the moral correctness of its rulers.

A system of state relations in which less powerful states directly or implicitly agree to defer to the lead of the most powerful state, which is, thus, the hegemon.

A hierarchical arrangement of groups or classes within a society-for example, peasants, merchants, officials, ministers, rulers.

States that are dependent on or partially controlled by more powerful ones.

A system of decentralized government in which rule is held by landowners who owe obligations of loyalty and military service to their superiors and protection to those under them.