Shifting Agrarian Centers in India, 3000–600 BCE

The physical features-mountains, rivers, deserts, swamps, etc. of a region.

The most ancient Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and including hymns, philosophy, and guidance on priestly ritual.

Stones in the shape of or meant to evoke the male sex organ; Indian religions use a host of phallic images, or lingams, in shrines, rituals, and festivals to symbolize the male, or active, forces of both natural and supernatural creation.

The full or partial renunciation of the material world.

A system in which people's places in society; how they live, the work they do, and whom they marry; are determined by heredity.

The transmigration of souls and reincarnation.

Deep holes or trenches used to deposit human waste and refuse; in the case of Harappa, they were flushed with water into city sewers and drains, ultimately leading to the adjacent river.

A large language family of western Eurasia that comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of northern India and Iran.