The New Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century, 1750–1914

International political system that dominated Europe from 1815 to 1914, which advocated a balance of power among states.

Competition among European powers from 1885 to 1912 to conquer land in Africa and establish colonies.

Belief that Europeans had a duty to extend what they believed were the benefits of European civilization to "backward" peoples.

Competition between Great Britain and Russia for conquest or control of Asian countries north of India and south of Russia, principally Afghanistan.

Establishment of a more or less elaborate administrative system by a European country in the conquered overseas territory, accompanied by economic exploitation. In a number of overseas territories, furthermore, settlers from Europe practiced colonialism by establishing themselves as farmers, planters, and craftsmen.

Dutch colonial scheme of compulsory labor and planting of crops imposed on indigenous Indonesian self-sufficiency farmers.

A person or thing considered subordinate to another.

The intensified domination that modernizing states exercised worldwide in the second half of the nineteenth century.

A person who acquired a large fortune in India during the period of British rule.