Industrialization and Its Discontents, 1750–1914

A theory of management, also known as "Scientific management," whose main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.

Manufacturing system which made extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production.

A tax on imported goods, which gives domestic manufacturers an advantage.

A workers' movement in Britain that sought, in the 1830s and 1840s, to enact the "People's Charter" designed to achieve electoral reform and make Britain the most democratic country in the world.

Social class that owns and controls the means of production.

A firearm that is loaded from the rear portion of the barrel, making reloading much more efficient.

Theory put forth by Albert Einstein that maintains that all measurements of space and time are relative.

A Marxist theory that reinterprets Hegel's dialectical method from a materialist position to explain change in the world of human history and society in terms of the conflict of material forces.

Various movements in philosophy and the arts between roughly 1860 and 1950, characterized by a deliberate break with classical or traditional forms of thought or expression.

Women who organized to demand the right to vote. In 1893 New Zealand was the first self-governing country that granted women the right to vote.

Derives from the French wooden shoes thrown into the machinery to damage it.

Weaving of cloth not only in urban crafts shops but also in village cottages. Urban entrepreneurs periodically collected the finished cloth from the cottagers.