The Challenge of Modernity: East Asia, 1750–1910

Poor migrant laborers from China and India who performed menial work in other parts of the world in the nineteenth century.

The immunity of a country's nationals from the laws of their host country.

A group of domestic or international businesses that form a group to control or monopolize an industry.

The loss by a country of its right to set its own tariffs.

Massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1851 to 1864 between the Qing dynasty and the Taipings. With a death toll of at least 20 million people, the Taiping rebellion was one of the bloodiest wars in human history.

A campaign that began in the 1860s to reform China's military and economy, prompted by the weaknesses revealed during the Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.