Innovation and Adaptation in the Western Christian World, 600–1450 CE

The French representative assembly, composed of the three social "estates" in France, first convened by Philip IV.

The act of anointing with oil as a rite of consecration.

All territories within France controlled directly by the king.

A medieval method of determining theological and philosophical truth by using Aristotelian logic.

A term initiated by William I to designate feudal vassals who held lands in return for service and loyalty to the king.

A representative assembly in England that, by the fourteenth century, was composed of great lords (both lay and ecclesiastical) and representatives from two other groups: shire knights and town burgesses.

Associations of artisans and merchants intended to protect and promote affairs of common interest.

Those countries professing Christian beliefs under the primacy of the pope.

The native, common spoken language of a particular region.

A trade network of allied ports along the North Sea and Baltic coasts, founded in 1256.

The period 1378-1417, marked by divided papal allegiances in Latin Christendom.

The act or ceremony of crowning a sovereign.