Grant's personal friend General Ely Samuel Parker, the first chair of the Board of Indian Commissioners, initiated the __________, which became increasingly difficult to achieve in the 1870s.
The Populist Party's __________ advocated socialization of the nation's railroads and other farsighted reforms aimed at empowering family farmers in the industrial age.
Tens of thousands of African American __________ fled rising racial violence at the end of military reconstruction in 1877 and migrated west to establish new towns and get a fresh start.
The __________ in June 1876 was a rare victory for Indians pressured by accelerating U.S. expansion.
The __________ of 1887 divided reservation land into individual parcels and turned tribal land into individual pieces of property.
Urged by white labor organizers, anti-Chinese leagues, community leaders, and western states, Congress passed the __________ in 1882.
The __________ in Nevada produced $96 million dollars in silver--more than the combined total from all previous recorded American mining.
Because the 160-acre parcels of the Homestead Act provision of 1862 were too small for ranching in the arid Southwest and because the five-year wait for full title ownership was too long, Congress passed the __________ in 1877.
In the middle of the 19th century, news about the "discovery" of the __________ and several nearby groves of giant Sequoia trees prompted the first tourist rush to the West.
Agriculture in the desert West required massive federal support that came with the creation of what would later be renamed the __________, which eventually funded massive irrigation projects in 16 western states.
Industrial education for Indians drew support from a new scientific ideology known as __________ that attributed the decline and rise of different racial groups and cultures as evidence of natural selection and the survival of the fittest.
The __________ of 1862 expanded the basic system of settlement established by the Ordinance of 1785 and helped privatize expansive western public lands.