1. How have criminological categorisations of youthful criminal groups developed over time and what explains their evolution?
  2. To what extent are the categories of ‘gang’ and ‘subculture’ useful and relevant in the contemporary context?
  3. Why have criminologists tended to focus on youthful criminal groups rather than adult groups?
  4. What impact have changes to the urban political economy had on criminal collaborations?
  5. Discuss the following proposition: ‘Categorisations of urban criminal collaborations are little more than convenient indicators of the division of academic labour’.
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