1. What have been the main rationales for the development and expansion of forms of punishment in the community?
  2. How and why have community sanctions and measures failed as alternatives to imprisonment?
  3. To what extent should we understand community sanctions and measures as humane alternatives to imprisonment? Does their expansion represent a counter-weight to or confirmation of a ‘punitive turn’ in penal policies around the world?
  4. How has Foucault’s work influenced scholars of punishment in the community?
  5. To what extent do you think the principles discussed at the end of this chapter represent a sound and research-informed basis for the future development of punishment in the community? What other principles, if any, would you add?
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