• Urine colour charts

Urine colour chart can be used to assess urine colour and hydration status:

  • Australian Guide to Healthy Eating/Eat for Health


  • Australian Medicines Handbook


  • Dietitians Australia


  • MNA® (Mini Nutritional Assessment)


  • MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool)


  • Nutrient Reference Values


  • Nutrient Reference Values Nutrients and Dietary Energy Calculator


  • Nutrition Australia


Additional reading:

Na et al. (2020) have recently demonstrated there may be a link between food insecurity in older people and cognition, including executive function and memory. They argue that this is most likely a combination of poor diet and mental distress that is the result of food insecurity. Read the paper here:

Na, M., Dou, N., Ji, N., Xie, D., Huang, J., Tucker, K.L., & Gao, X. (2020). Food Insecurity and Cognitive Function in Middle to Older Adulthood: A Systematic Review. Advances in Nutrition, 11, 667–676; doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz122.

There are a range of dietary patterns that can be considered vegetarian. These include vegans, lacto-vegetarians, ovo-vegetarians, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. Oussalah et al. (2020) provide an excellent overview of these dietary patterns and the health benefits they can bring. Read the paper here:

Oussalah, A., Levy, J., Berthezene, C., Alpers, D.H., & Gueant, J-L. (2020). Health outcomes associated with vegetarian diets: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Clinical Nutrition, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.02.037

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