The Renaissance, New Sciences, and Religious Wars in Europe, 1450–1750

Derived from "Caesar," title used by the Russian rulers to emphasize their imperial ambitions.

Also Counter-Reformation. Reaffirmation of Catholic papal supremacy and the doctrine of faith together with works as preparatory to salvation; such practices as absenteeism (bishops in Rome instead of in their bishoprics) and pluralism (bishops and abbots holding multiple appointments) were abolished.

Mathematized sciences, such as physics, introduced in the 1500s.

An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for mutually-shared benefits

Army founded by the English parliament in 1645 Infused with Puritan zeal, it was equipped with standardized weapons and professionally trained.

Intellectual movement focusing on human culture, in such fields as philosophy, philology, and literature, and based on the corpus of Greek and Roman texts.

Partial remission of sins after payment of a fine or presentation of a donation. Remission would mean the forgiveness of sins by the Church, but the sinner still remained responsible for his or her sins before God.

Theory of the state in which the unlimited power of the king, ruling under God's divine mandate, was emphasized. In practice, it was neutralized by the nobility and provincial and local communities.

Broad movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church, the beginnings of which are usually associated with Martin Luther.

"Rebirth" of culture based on new publications and translations of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman authors whose writings were previously unknown in Western Christianity.

The discovery that the sun is the center of our solar system