Innovation and Adaptation in the Western Christian World, 600–1450 CE

An outward and physical sign of an inward and spiritual grace.

Those countries professing Christian beliefs under the primacy of the pope.

A trade network of allied ports along the North Sea and Baltic coasts, founded in 1256.

A representative assembly in England that, by the fourteenth century, was composed of great lords (both lay and ecclesiastical) and representatives from two other groups: shire knights and town burgesses.

An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.

The French representative assembly, composed of the three social "estates" in France, first convened by Philip IV.

A written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to perform or cease performing a specified act.

The period 1378-1417, marked by divided papal allegiances in Latin Christendom.

The act or ceremony of crowning a sovereign.

The medieval European system of self-sustaining agricultural estates.

Christian celebration of the Resurrection of Christ; celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox.

The act of anointing with oil as a rite of consecration.