Islamic Civilization and Byzantium, 600–1300 CE

Christianity based on the doctrine of God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

"And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father (and the Son [filioque]),who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified" (partial quote). The filioque was inserted into the Creed in Spain at the end of the 500s against Arianism which denied the divinity of Jesus, but it was never ratified in the east.

An association of self-governing states sharing similar institutional and cultural traits.

The combined body of the legal verses of the Quran, the prophetic Sunna, and the legal commentaries of the 800s and 900s, covering law as well as morality.

Eastern Christianity allows clerical marriage and the wearing of beards.

A system for collecting taxes and rents from the population, where the state grants the right of collection to private individuals.

Removal of all religious images from churches and monasteries during a period in the Byzantine Empire (726-787, 814-842), under orders of the emperors.

Initially: believer in the concordance among all prophetic messages from Abraham to Muhammad. Later on: believer who submits to the will of God (Allah).

Literally "struggle (for the path of God-fi sabil Allah)," that can range from personal struggle for faith to war in the name of Islam.

Representative of God, and later of Muhammad, on earth.

The partaking of bread and wine in commemoration of Jesus Christ's last supper. Byzantium accused Rome of serving the flat Middle Eastern bread which it denounced as "Jewish," in reference to Lev. 23:4–8.

Meditative devotion to faith, expressed in the form of prayer, ecstasy, chanting, or dancing.