The End of the Cold War, Western Social Transformation, and the Developing World, 1963–1991

System of social and legal segregation by race enforced by the government of South Africa from 1948 until 1994.

Increased prices and record high interest rates but a stagnant economy overall.

Socio-political movement (1966-1976) set in motion by Mao Zedong that purged remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society and reimposed Maoist thought as the dominant ideology within the Communist Party.

"Openness"; an attempt to loosen restrictions on media in the Soviet Union with an aim at more accurate reporting of events and the creation of "socialist pluralism."

"Restructuring" of the Soviet bureaucracy and economic structure in an attempt to make it more efficient and responsive to market demand.