Reconstruction, Cold War, and Decolonization, 1945–1962

Financial program of $13 billion to support the reconstruction of the economies of 17 European countries during 1948–1952, with most of the aid going to France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.

Mobilization project led by Mao Zedong that aimed to transform China from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization.

US foreign policy doctrine formulated in 1946 to limit as much as possible the spread of communism.

Policy formulated in 1947, initially to outline steps directed at preventing Greece and Turkey from becoming communist, primarily through military and economic aid.

An international, anticolonialist movement of state leaders that promoted the interests of countries not aligned with the superpowers.

A form of thought built on the assumption that modern scientific-industrial society is without intrinsic meaning unless an answer to the question of what constitutes authentic existence is found.

Argentinian political movement that aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for negotiating compromise in conflicts between business and workers.

Ideological struggle between the United States and its allies, and the Soviet Union and its allies that lasted from 1945 to 1989.

Successor of the League of Nations, founded in 1945 and today comprising nearly 200 countries, with a Secretary General, a General Assembly meeting annually, and a standing Security Council composed of permanent members (United States, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, and France) as well as five rotating temporary members.

Type of governance in which rulers seek support directly from the population, through organizing mass rallies, manipulating elections, and intimidating or bypassing parliament.