Adaptation and Resistance: The Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1683–1908

Ideology that espoused the brotherhood of all Slavic peoples and gave Russia the mission to aid Slavs in the Balkans suffering from alleged Ottoman misrule.

Faction of the Russian socialist movement that supported an evolutionary transition from capitalism to communism.

Faction of the Russian socialist movement that called for revolution in the near term.

Lifelong tax farm, awarded to a wealthy member of the ruling class, in return for advances to the central imperial treasury on the taxes to be collected from village farmers.

Ottoman reforms inspired by constitutionalism in Europe, including the adoption of basic rights, a legal reform, a land code, and a constitution.

Legal and cultural institution in which peasants are bound to the land.