A campaign that began in the 1860s to reform China's military and economy, prompted by the weaknesses revealed during the Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.
The loss by a country of its right to set its own tariffs.
Poor migrant laborers from China and India who performed menial work in other parts of the world in the nineteenth century.
A group of domestic or international businesses that form a group to control or monopolize an industry.
The immunity of a country's nationals from the laws of their host country.
Massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1851 to 1864 between the Qing dynasty and the Taipings. With a death toll of at least 20 million people, the Taiping rebellion was one of the bloodiest wars in human history.