The Challenge of Modernity: East Asia, 1750–1910

A campaign that began in the 1860s to reform China's military and economy, prompted by the weaknesses revealed during the Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.

The loss by a country of its right to set its own tariffs.

Poor migrant laborers from China and India who performed menial work in other parts of the world in the nineteenth century.

A group of domestic or international businesses that form a group to control or monopolize an industry.

The immunity of a country's nationals from the laws of their host country.

Massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1851 to 1864 between the Qing dynasty and the Taipings. With a death toll of at least 20 million people, the Taiping rebellion was one of the bloodiest wars in human history.