Creoles and Caudillos: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century, 1790–1917

Geographical term denoting the southern half of South America, with the countries of Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina.

Term referring to authoritarian Latin American rulers who disregard the constitutional limits to their powers. Derived from Latin capitellum (little head). Authoritarianism was most pronounced in northern South America.

The practice by which countries protect their economies by setting high tariffs and construct factories for the production of consumer goods (textiles, furniture, shoes, followed later by appliances, automobiles, electronics) and/or capital goods (steel, chemicals, machinery).