The offspring of a Spanish or Portuguese father and an African mother.
Land grant by the government to an entrepreneur entitling him to use forced indigenous or imported slave labor on that land for the exploitation of agricultural and mineral resources.
Exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and the rest of the world.
Obligation by villagers to send stipulated numbers of people as laborers to a contractor, who had the right to exploit a mine or other labor intensive enterprise; the contractors paid the laborers minimal wages and bound them through debt peonage (repayment).
The offspring of a Spanish or Portuguese father and a Native American mother.
American born descendants of European, primarily Spanish, immigrants.