The Rise of Empires in the Americas, 600–1550 CE

Knotted string assembly, used in the Andes from ca. 2500 BCE onward for the recording of taxes, population figures, calendar dates, troop numbers, and other data.

In its basic form, an informal agreement among people according to which a gift or an invitation has to be returned after a reasonable amount of time; in the pre-Columbian Americas, an arrangement of feasts instead of taxes shared by ruling classes and subjects in a state.

Innovation of the Incas in which subjects were obligated to deliver a portion of their harvests, animal products, and domestically produced goods to nearby storehouses for use by Inca officials and troops. The mit'a also provided laborers for construction projects as well as workers on state farms or mines.

Mesoamerican agricultural practice by which farmers grew crops on small, humanmade islands in Lake Texcoco.