China: Imperial Unification and Perfecting the Moral Order, 722 BCE–618 CE

The charging of interest on loans, usually on excessive ("usurious") terms.

Local leaders; these are usually chosen by the people of the village, clan, district, etc., rather than appointed by the government.

The pattern by which newcomers to areas dominated by Chinese culture were encouraged to adopt that culture for themselves.

Mutual exchange of things, ideas, etc.

Districts under the control of a military commander.

The study of the beautiful; the branches of learning dealing with categorizing and analyzing beauty.

According to Confucius, the "superior man" or "gentleman" who behaves according to an ethical and moral ideal. A society run by junzi will foster social institutions that encourage proper behavior.

Overland trade routes that connected eastern and western Eurasia, beginning at the end of the fourth century BCE.

The transcendent first principle beyond the universe. Daoists teach that only through self-reflection and contemplation of paradoxes can an individual come to know the Dao.

School of thought first articulated by Xunzi (310–219 BCE) that saw humans as greedy and selfish and urged leaders to adopt strict rules to prevent their subjects from doing evil.

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