China: Imperial Unification and Perfecting the Moral Order, 722 BCE–618 CE

Mutual exchange of things, ideas, etc.

The charging of interest on loans, usually on excessive ("usurious") terms.

The study of the beautiful; the branches of learning dealing with categorizing and analyzing beauty.

The pattern by which newcomers to areas dominated by Chinese culture were encouraged to adopt that culture for themselves.

School of thought first articulated by Xunzi (310–219 BCE) that saw humans as greedy and selfish and urged leaders to adopt strict rules to prevent their subjects from doing evil.

The transcendent first principle beyond the universe. Daoists teach that only through self-reflection and contemplation of paradoxes can an individual come to know the Dao.

Local leaders; these are usually chosen by the people of the village, clan, district, etc., rather than appointed by the government.

Overland trade routes that connected eastern and western Eurasia, beginning at the end of the fourth century BCE.

Districts under the control of a military commander.

According to Confucius, the "superior man" or "gentleman" who behaves according to an ethical and moral ideal. A society run by junzi will foster social institutions that encourage proper behavior.