Agrarian Centers and the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China, 5000–481 BCE

A system of state relations in which less powerful states directly or implicitly agree to defer to the lead of the most powerful state, which is, thus, the hegemon.

A system of decentralized government in which rule is held by landowners who owe obligations of loyalty and military service to their superiors and protection to those under them.

States that are dependent on or partially controlled by more powerful ones.

A species of grass cultivated for its edible white seeds and as hay for animal feed.

A hierarchical arrangement of groups or classes within a society-for example, peasants, merchants, officials, ministers, rulers.

Philosophical concept that developed in China in which a dynasty's right to rule depends on the moral correctness of its rulers.