Agrarian–Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean, 11,500–600 BCE

A type of society characterized by intensive agriculture and people living in cities, towns, and villages.

People whose livelihood was based on the herding of animals, such as sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels; moving with their animals from pasture to pasture according to the seasons, they lived in tent camps.

A system of government in which most or all of the people elect representatives and in some cases decide on important issues themselves.

A city or fortified palace with surrounding villages.

Large multiethnic, multilinguistic, multireligious state consisting of a conquering kingdom and several defeated kingdoms.

Around 1500–1200 BCE, smiths were able to produce sufficiently high temperatures to smelt iron bloom, a mixture of iron and a variety of impurities.

A place of more than 5,000 inhabitants with nonfarming inhabitants (craftspeople, merchants, administrators), markets, and a city leader capable of compelling obedience to his decisions by force.

Farmers who received seed, animals, and tools from landowners in exchange for up to two thirds of their harvest and access to land.

At a minimum, people engaged in farming cereal grains on rain-fed or irrigated fields and breeding sheep and cattle.

A system of government in which, in the place of kings, the people are sovereign, electing representatives to executive and legislative offices.

Around 1200 BCE, resulting from the collapse of the Hittite Empire and the weakening of the Egyptian New Kingdom; chariot warfare had become unsustainable in these early kingdoms.

Period from ca. 9600 to 4500 BCE when stone tools were adapted to the requirements of agriculture through the making of sickles and spades.