Innovation and Adaptation in the Western Christian World, 600–1450 CE

An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.

The urban-based middle class between the wealthy aristocracy and the working class.

The medieval European system of self-sustaining agricultural estates.

A representative assembly in England that, by the fourteenth century, was composed of great lords (both lay and ecclesiastical) and representatives from two other groups: shire knights and town burgesses.

Christian celebration of the Resurrection of Christ; celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox.

Associations of artisans and merchants intended to protect and promote affairs of common interest.

The French representative assembly, composed of the three social "estates" in France, first convened by Philip IV.

The period 1378-1417, marked by divided papal allegiances in Latin Christendom.

A written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to perform or cease performing a specified act.

An arrangement in which vassals were protected and maintained by their lords, usually through the granting of fiefs, and required to serve under them in war.

An outward and physical sign of an inward and spiritual grace.

A term initiated by William I to designate feudal vassals who held lands in return for service and loyalty to the king.