Innovation and Adaptation in the Western Christian World, 600–1450 CE

Christian celebration of the Resurrection of Christ; celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox.

An outward and physical sign of an inward and spiritual grace.

The French representative assembly, composed of the three social "estates" in France, first convened by Philip IV.

The urban-based middle class between the wealthy aristocracy and the working class.

A written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to perform or cease performing a specified act.

The period 1378-1417, marked by divided papal allegiances in Latin Christendom.

An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.

A trade network of allied ports along the North Sea and Baltic coasts, founded in 1256.

The medieval European system of self-sustaining agricultural estates.

Those countries professing Christian beliefs under the primacy of the pope.

An arrangement in which vassals were protected and maintained by their lords, usually through the granting of fiefs, and required to serve under them in war.

The law of the church.