Hegel and Marx

13.1 Hegel

  • Define absolute idealism and pantheism.
  • Explain Hegel’s concept of Spirit and the notion of universal self-consciousness.
  • Understand the basic steps in the process that Hegel calls dialectic.

13.2 Marx

  • Define socialism, communism, and capitalism.
  • Understand the meaning of Marx’s phrase, “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”
  • Articulate the main social and political differences between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
  • Explain Marx’s comment that the bourgeoisie produce their own gravediggers.
  • Summarize the main criticisms that have been lodged against socialist systems.
  • Understand how Marx applies the concept of dialectic to the rise of socialism.
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