Kant's Revolution

11.1 The Small-Town Genius

  • Understand why Kant is considered a philosophical revolutionary.
  • Appreciate the contrast between Kant’s plain and regimented life and his achievements in science, epistemology, and ethics.

11.2 The Knowledge Revolution

  • Define the analytic statement and synthetic statement.
  • Explain the disagreement between Kant and Hume and how their theories of knowledge conflict.
  • Explain how Kant’s theory of knowledge has both empiricist and rationalist elements.
  • Summarize Kant’s explanation of how synthetic a priori knowledge is possible.
  • Understand Kant’s insight about conceptualized experience and how it is reflected in modern psychology.

11.3 The Moral Law

  • Define ethics, morality, moral theory, consequentialist theory, deontological theory, utilitarianism, and categorical imperative
  • Understand the distinction between ethics and morality and know the basic elements that make morality a unique normative enterprise.
  • Distinguish among moral objectivism, moral absolutism, moral relativism, subjective relativism, and cultural relativism.
  • Summarize some of the main objections to cultural relativism.
  • Know the essential differences between utilitarianism and Kant’s theory.
  • Articulate the main features of Kant’s moral theory and of his two versions of the categorical imperative.
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