Chapter 2 Study Questions

  1. What was the first plant genome to be sequenced? What is the number of chromosomes this species has? How many protein-coding genes does it have? 

    Textbook Reference: Nuclear Genome Organization, p. 51

  2. Compare and contrast two major classes of transposons in plants. 

    Textbook Reference: Nuclear Genome Organization, p. 53

  3. Why are interspecies hybrids usually sterile? How can the sterility of interspecies hybrids be overcome? How does the “triangle of U” illustrate this principle?
    Textbook Reference: Nuclear Genome Organization, p. 58
  4. What is the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of cytoplasmic genomes? Which organelles are involved? 

    Textbook Reference: Plant Cytoplasmic Genomes: Mitochondria and Plastids, p. 61

  5. Discuss the mechanisms of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational regulation in eukaryotic gene expression.

    Textbook Reference: Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression, pp. 62–66; Posttranscriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression, pp. 67–72

  6. Diagram the regulatory regions of a typical eukaryotic promoter and how they interact to regulate gene expression.

    Textbook Reference: Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression, p. 63

  7. Define “epigenetic modifications” in relation to genomic regulation, and provide an example.

    Textbook Reference: Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression, p. 65

  8. Discuss the functions and basic mechanisms of the RNA interference pathway. What role does it play in the phenomenon of co-suppression?

    Textbook Reference: Posttranscriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression, pp. 67–72

  9. What is meant by “transformation” and how does Agrobacterium transform a plant cell? What are the various bacterial proteins that participate in the process and what are their functions?

    Textbook Reference: Tools for Studying Gene Function, pp. 74–75

  10. What are the three essential differences between genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and conventionally bred crop varieties?

    Textbook Reference: Genetic Modification of Crop Plants, p. 77