1. End of the 20th century: impossible to sustain a clear-cut dichotomy between the center of American popular music and its margins
      1. Established older artists
        1. Johnny Cash (1932‒2003)
    2.  Hip Hop Breaks Out (1980s‒1990s)
      1. Run DMC: trio consisting of MCs Run (Joseph Simmons, b. 1964), and DMC (Darryl McDaniels, b. 1964), and the DJ Jam Master Jay (Jason Mizell, 1965-2002)
        1. Listening Guide: “Walk This Way”
          1. Written by Joe Perry and Steven Tyler; performed by Run-D.M.C. with Perry and Tyler (from Aerosmith) (recorded 1986)
      2.  Beastie Boys
      3.  Public Enemy
        1. Two MCs: Chuck D (Carlton Ridenhour, b. 1960), Flavor Flav (William Drayton, b. 1959)
        2. DJ: Terminator X (Norman Lee Rogers, b. 1966)
        3. “Minster of Information”: Professor Griff (Richard Griffin, b. 1960)
    3. Commercialization, Diversification, and the Rise of Gangsta Rap (1990s)
      1. Gangsta rap
        1. M.C. Hammer (Stanley Kirk Burrell, b. 1962)
        2. Vanilla Ice (Robert Van Winkle, b. 1968)
        3. Late 1980s
          1. Southern California
            1. Ice-T (Tracy Marrow, b. 1958)
          2. Emergence of West Coast gangsta rap
            1. WA. (Niggaz With Attitude)
              1. Group formed in 1986 with O’Shea “Ice Cube” Jackson (b. 1969), Andre “Dr. Dre” Young (b. 1965) and Eric “Easy-E” Wright (1973-1995)
              2. Snoop Doggy Dogg (Calvin Broadus, b. 1972)
      2. Listening Guide: “What’s My Name?”

        1. Written by George Clinton, Gary Shider, Snoop Dogg, and David Spradley; produced by Dr. Dre; performed by Snoop Doggy Dogg (recorded 1993)
      3. Mid-1990s: violent eruption of conflicts between East and West Coast factions within the hip-hop business

        1. Marion “Suge” Knight, CEP of Death Row Records (Los Angeles)
          1. Tupac (2Pac) Shakur (1971‒1996)
        2. “Sean “Puffy” Combs (also called Puff Daddy or P. Diddy), CEP of New York based Bad Boy Records
          1. Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher Wallace, also called Biggie Smalls, 1972‒1997)
        3. Gangsta rap: chronicled dilemmas of urban communities: poverty, drug addiction, violence from a first-person, present-tense viewpoint
    4. Box 14.1: Hip-Hop, Sampling, and the Law

      1. Increasing sophistication and affordability of digital sampling technology made it possible for rap producers to weave sound textures out of pre-recorded materials
    5. Queen Latifah

      1. Queen Latifah (b. 1970)
        1. Listening Guide: “U.N.I.T.Y.”
          1. Written by Queen Latifah and Kier “Kay Gee” Gist (released 1994)
    6. Eminem

      1. Marshal “Eminem” Mathers (b. 1972)
        1. Unique Figure in history of rap music
    7. Techno: Dance Music in the Digital Age

      1. Electronic dance music (EDM)
      2. Raves
      3. House music
    8. Alternate Currents

      1. Hundreds of named genres
      2. Alternative Rock, 1980s‒1990s
        1. Hardcore
          1. Listening Guide: “Holiday in Cambodia”
            1. Written and performed by the Dead Kennedys (recorded 1980)
            2. Good example of early 1980s hardcore punk rock
            3. Jello Biafra (Eric Boucher, b. 1959): lead singer
        2.  Thrash
        3. Nirvana: band from Pacific Northwest made up of singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain (1967‒1994), bassist Krist Novoselic (b. 1965), drummer Dave Grohl (b. 1969)
          1. Grunge rock
          2. Listening Guide: “Smells Like Teen Spirit”
            1. Music by Nirvana; lyrics by Kurt Cobain; performed by Nirvana (recorded 1991)
      3. Box 14.2: The “Seattle Sound”

        1. Regional sounds have played an important part in the history of popular music
      4. Women’s Voices: Alternative Folk, Hip-Hop, and Country

        1. Ani DiFranco (b. 1970)
        2. Lauryn Hill (b. 1975)
          1. Listening Guide: “Doo Wop (That Thing)”
            1. Written and performed by Lauryn Hill (recorded 1998)
        3. k.d. lang (b. 1961) Listening Guide: “Nowhere to Stand”
          1. Written by k.d. lang;
            1. performed by k.d. lang and the Reclines (recorded 1989)
        4.  Bikini Kill
          1. At the forefront of the riot grrrl movement
    9. Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music: Approaches to Tradition

      1. Country and western: one of the most popular genres of American music
      2. George Strait (b. 1952), Alan Jackson (b. 1958), Toby Keith (b. 1961)
      3. Taylor Swift (b. 1989)
      4. Gretchen Wilson (b. 1973)
    10. Box 14.3: More Country Alternatives: O Brother Where Art Thou? and the Resurgence of Bluegrass

      1. O Brother Where Art Thou? (2000)
        1. Ralph Stanley (b. 1927)
        2. Alison Krauss (b. 1971)
          1. Union Station
    11. Latina Superstars of the 1990s: Gloria Estefan and Selena

      1. Two female superstars: Gloria Estefan (b. 1957) and Selena (1971‒1995)
      2. Enrique Iglesias (b. 1975)
    12. Globalization and the Rise of World Music

      1. World music
        1. Ravi Shankar (1920‒2012)
        2. King Sunny Adé (b. 1946)
    13. Key Terms.

Alternative music

Gangsta rap



House music




Riot grrrl


World music

    1. Key People

Alan Jackson

Alison Krauss

Andre “Dr. Dre” Young

Ani DiFranco

Bikini Kill

Chuck D

Dave Grohl


Eddie Vedder

Enrique Iglesias

Eric “Eazy-E” Wright

Flavor Flav

George Strait

Gloria Estefan

Gretchen Wilson


Jam Master Jay

Jello Biafra

Johnny Cash

Kathleen Hanna

k.d. lang

King Sunny Adé

Krist Novoselic

Kurt Cobain

Lauryn Hill

MC Hammer

Notorious B.I.G.


O’Shea “Ice Cube” Jackson

Professor Griff

Public Enemy

Queen Latifah

Ralph Stanley

Ravi Shankar




Sean “Puffy” Combs


Snoop Doggy Dogg

Sonic Youth

Taylor Swift

Terminator X

Toby Keith

Tupac (2Pac) Shakur

Union Station

Vanilla Ice


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