As the economic balance of power shifted, the U.S. and USSR found it difficult to shape and control events around the world. The collapse of the Cold War and the birth of globalization happened almost simultaneously, and as new ways of thinking, governing, and creating crossed the globe, not all results were positive. While globalization did lead to stronger economies, more focus on human rights and dignity, and supranational organizations to help the developing world, it also led to a backlash from those determined to preserve their traditional values. As ideas and cultures became more global, some eventually turned back to try to defend their local identity, as the Counterpoint in the chapter examines. In the end, the promises and perils of globalization were, and continue to be, as far-reaching and varied as the cultures and peoples of the world.

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