Industrialization offered a host of advantages to the West. It allowed political leaders to create powerful nation-states, and extend their power and control outside of their borders. The drive to increase national power and wealth was the prime motivator for this consolidation of power and nation-building, and for the creation of empires. Nation-building spread from Latin America across Europe to Japan and other parts of Asia. Politicians worked to unite diverse peoples within their borders and develop more effective governments. Once this was accomplished, these (mostly European) nation-states turned to empire-building. Almost all of Africa and extensive parts of Africa fell under their control. Imperialism changed society, culture, and livelihoods, both in the mother countries, and in their colonies. While the benefits tended to greatly impact the imperialist powers, there were still numerous members of the home society who were excluded from full participation in the nation-state. The Counterpoint of this chapter looks at those “outsiders” inside the nation-state, such as ethnic minorities and women. It shows how they attempted to gain acceptance and inclusion.