Starting around 1550 B.C.E., rulers of some early states began wide-ranging foreign conquests, creating empires. Starting with the development of imperial Egypt, these empires were constantly competing with one another for territory, resources, and control. Egypt gave way to Nubia, which was forced to rescind some of its power to the conquering Assyrians. As the Assyrian system faltered, the Persians emerged and created a vast and powerful empire. All of these empires found unique was to exert their control, while also exchanging cultural, political, and religious ideals. Through all of their assimilation and success, the Counterpoint of this chapter illustrates how certain groups, in this case the Greeks, were able to successfully resist the expansion. In doing so, they established new political systems and cultural traditions that would have a radical impact on world history.

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