Over the past two centuries, archaeologists have uncovered fossils all over the world that show a startling range of human society. With the evidence of early human society, it is necessary to see when, why, and how early humans adapted to their environment, and eventually developed agriculture. Starting with an anthropological background, this chapter traces the activities of early humans from their evolution through the Paleolithic gatherer-hunter stages, to the discovery of agriculture and the Neolithic communities. This record serves to help see how early humans were able to prepare themselves for the advances that were to come. In addition, the Counterpoint of this chapter examines how certain groups, like the Aborigines of Australia, chose to continue a gatherer-hunter way of life, although agricultural livelihoods were possible.