Monitoring, implementing, and enforcing human rights

Methods of monitoring, implementing and enforcing international human rights are addressed in this chapter. The following links provide further information thereon.

The UN System of monitoring human rights

www.ohchr.org - Contains links to the treaties, the Committees and other related materials. Each Committee site contains information on sessions, rules of procedure and relevant statistics.

www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/Pages/TreatyBodies.aspx - United Nations individual communications to treaty bodies, accessible under each treaty body.

www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/SP/Pages/Communications.aspx - UN Communications under extra-conventional mechanisms.

Reviewing the UN system

In the text, two principal reports are mentioned. They are obtainable online.

www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/Pages/DocumentsSystem.aspx - Professor Philip Alston's final report to the United Nations on the Effective Functioning of Human Rights Mechanisms.

www.bayefsky.com/tree.php/id/9250 - This link goes to Professor Ann Bayefsky's report, Universality at the Crossroads.

www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/A.59.2005.Add.3.pdf - This link goes to the full text of the former Secretary General (Kofi Annan)'s report 'In larger Freedom - towards security, development and human rights for all'.

www.un.org/en/events/pastevents/a_more_secure_world.shtml - This link goes to the former Secretary General (Kofi Annan)'s High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, the text of the report can be accessed therefrom.

www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/icm-mc/index.htm - This link goes to the website of the Annual Meeting of Chairpersons of Human Rights Treaty Bodies and Inter-Committee Meeting

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/treaty/reform.htm - This link to the OHCHR provides information and links on reforming and enhancing the UN treaty body system.

www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/icm-mc/docs/HRI.MC.2006.2.pdf - Concept paper on a unified treaty monitoring body.

Regional comparators

In the text comparisons are made with the various regional systems. Comprehensive link information is provided in chapters 7-9.

www.coe.int - The Council of Europe. The European Court of Human Rights is one of the most active human rights bodies.

www.oas.org - The Organization of American States. Various methods of monitoring human rights are used

https://au.int - The African Union. The newest system which demonstrates many innovative features.