The targeting and forced removal of ethnic minorities by other groups and/or the nation-state
A system of labor camps maintained in the Soviet Union in the early to mid 20th century.
A very rich business person who might also maintain a great deal of political authority. Oligarchs proliferated in Russia after the fall of the USSR as many previously state owned assets were acquired below market value.
Region found between the tundra and steppe regions of northern latitudes that is generally composed of coniferous forests.
A type of economic system that is not controlled by a central authority but rather left to the free and open collaboration and decisions of the participants in the market.
A vast network of pipelines used to transport oil and gas deposits from Russia and central Asia to markets in Europe and China.
Intellectual belied system developed in 17th and 18th century Europe that's stressed reason over belief and rationality over religion.
A military alliance formed in 1949 between Canada, the USA and European countries as a bulwark against the Soviet Union.
The empire founded by Genghis Khan that extended in the 13th and 14th century across Asia into Europe.
A significant and highly influential ancient trade route that linked Europe with China.
An empire that developed from the Roman Empire, centered on Constantinople that lasted from 285 until 1483.
The tendency for empires to become involved in more foreign interventions that they can afford or manage successfully.