Chapter 8 Essay Questions
1. What is the difference between the EfficiencyModel and the Fitness Model of natural purposes? Does either model provide a plausible basis for natural law theory? Why or why not?
2. Explain the Natural Law Argument. What are some possible interpretations of the first premise, and why is each problematic? Do you think that there is any way to modify premise one to avoid these concerns? What general lessons about natural law theory do you think that we can draw from these considerations?
3. Explain the three conceptions of human nature discussed in the text. Which of these conceptions, if any, do you think is the correct one? What implications does this conception of human nature have for the plausibility of natural law theory? Defend your answers.
4. Aquinas claimed that “all those things to which man has a natural inclination are naturally apprehended by reason as being good.” What does he mean by this? Come up with and discuss a possible counterexample to this claim. Ultimately, do you agree with Aquinas? Why or why not?
5. Explain the objection that not all virtues are prescribed by the natural law. How does Aquinas respond to this objection? Is his response successful? Defend your answer.