1. What is white privilege? Provide some examples. In your opinion, what special moral obligations do those who benefit from white privilege have? Explain and defend your answer.
  2. What is the difference between de jure equality of opportunity and de facto equality of opportunity? Illustrate each concept with an example. Which concept is at play in the Equal Opportunity Argument? Why might ensuring de jure equality of opportunity not be enough to correct for systematic oppression?
  3. Does the U.S. government owe reparations to any groups? If so, which ones? How can we determine what kind of reparations are owed and to whom? Can we answer these questions even if we cannot answer counterfactual questions with certainty? Defend your answers.
  4. What objections do King’s critics make to the methods of direct action? How does King respond to these objections? Are his responses convincing in your view? Why or why not?
  5. King argues that breaking the law is morally justified under certain conditions. What are these conditions? Are these conditions sufficient to justify law-breaking in your view? Why or why not?
  6. According to Lebron, why is the idea of Black radicalism alarming to many Americans? Why does he think it is a mistake to treat radicalism as a dangerous doctrine? Do you agree with his assessment? Why or why not?
  7. Toward the end of his piece, Lebron asks “Which flavor of black radicalism should be embraced—Malcolm’s or Martin’s?” Explain what you take to be his answer to this question. Do you agree? Why or why not?
  8. Why does the fact that some African Americans have experienced great success in recent years not mean that the United States has become a color-blind, “post-racial” society, according to Alexander? Do you agree with Alexander on this point? Why or why not?
  9. Alexander claims that the mass incarceration of people of color in the United States amounts to a new racial caste system specifically tailored to the political, economic, and social challenges of our time. What does she mean by this exactly and how does she make her case? Do you find her case compelling? Why or why not?
  10. What does Hausman mean by “rectification?” How is it different from “reparation?” Why might someone think that preferential hiring and admissions is justified as a form of rectification? What problems does Hausman have with this view? Do you agree with his criticisms? Why or why not?
  11. Explain Hausman’s thought experiment regarding the elementary school. What is this example supposed to show? Do you think that it is genuinely analogous to preferential hiring and admissions? If so, what lessons can we draw from the thought experiment? If not, what are the differences between the thought experiment and preferential hiring and admissions that undermine the analogy? Explain your answer.
  12. Briefly explain the four stages of integration. According to Anderson, what three types of goods can only be achieved with integration? Do you think that any of these goods could be achieved without integration? Why or why not?
  13. Explain Anderson’s critique of the right’s approach to integration. How do you think a conservative should respond to her critique? Ultimately, who do you think is right? Explain and defend your response.
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