Because the 160-acre parcels of the Homestead Act provision of 1862 were too small for ranching in the arid Southwest and because the five-year wait for full title ownership was too long, Congress passed the __________ in 1877.

The __________ in June 1876 was a rare victory for Indians pressured by accelerating U.S. expansion.

Grant's personal friend General Ely Samuel Parker, the first chair of the Board of Indian Commissioners, initiated the __________, which became increasingly difficult to achieve in the 1870s.

Urged by white labor organizers, anti-Chinese leagues, community leaders, and western states, Congress passed the __________ in 1882.

Agriculture in the desert West required massive federal support that came with the creation of what would later be renamed the __________, which eventually funded massive irrigation projects in 16 western states.

Tens of thousands of African American __________ fled rising racial violence at the end of military reconstruction in 1877 and migrated west to establish new towns and get a fresh start.

The __________ of 1887 divided reservation land into individual parcels and turned tribal land into individual pieces of property.

The __________ in Nevada produced $96 million dollars in silver--more than the combined total from all previous recorded American mining.

In the middle of the 19th century, news about the "discovery" of the __________ and several nearby groves of giant Sequoia trees prompted the first tourist rush to the West.

The __________ of 1862 expanded the basic system of settlement established by the Ordinance of 1785 and helped privatize expansive western public lands.

The Populist Party's __________ advocated socialization of the nation's railroads and other farsighted reforms aimed at empowering family farmers in the industrial age.

Industrial education for Indians drew support from a new scientific ideology known as __________ that attributed the decline and rise of different racial groups and cultures as evidence of natural selection and the survival of the fittest.