Psychopharmacology 3e Chapter 9 Outline

Drug Abuse and Addiction


Introduction to Drug Abuse and Addiction

Drugs of abuse are widely consumed in our society
Drug use in our society has increased and has become more heavily regulated over time

Features of Drug Abuse and Addiction

Drug addiction is considered to be a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder
There are two types of progression in drug use
Box 9.1 Of Special Interest Should the Term Addiction Be Applied to Compulsive Behavioral Disorders That Don’t Involve Substance Use?
Which drugs are the most addictive?

Factors That Influence the Development and Maintenance of Drug Abuse and Addiction

The addiction potential of a substance is influenced by its route of administration
Most abused drugs exert rewarding and reinforcing effects
Drug dependence leads to withdrawal symptoms when abstinence is attempted
Discriminative stimulus effects contribute to drug-seeking behavior
Genetic factors contribute to the risk for addiction
Psychosocial variables also contribute to addiction risk
The factors contributing to drug addiction can be combined into a biopsychosocial model

The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction

Drug reward and incentive salience drive the binge–intoxication stage of drug use
The withdrawal/negative affect stage is characterized by stress and by the recruitment of an antireward circuit
The preoccupation/anticipation stage involves dysregulation of prefrontal cortical function and corticostriatal circuitry
Molecular neuroadaptations play a key role in the transition to an addicted state
Is addiction a disease?