Psychopharmacology 3e Chapter 8 Outline

Glutamate and GABA



Glutamate Synthesis, Release, and Inactivation

Neurons generate glutamate from the precursor glutamine
Glutamate packaging into vesicles and uptake after release are mediated by multiple transport systems

Organization and Function of the Glutamatergic System

Glutamate is the neurotransmitter used in many excitatory pathways in the brain
Both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors mediate the synaptic effects of glutamate
Box 8.1 Clinical Applications Fragile X Syndrome and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists: A Contemporary Saga of Translational Medicine
AMPA and NMDA receptors play a key role in learning and memory
High levels of glutamate can be toxic to nerve cells


GABA Synthesis, Release, and Inactivation

GABA is synthesized by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase
GABA packaging into vesicles and uptake after release are mediated by specific transporter proteins
GABA is coreleased with several other classical neurotransmitters

Organization and Function of the GABAergic System

Some GABAergic neurons are interneurons, while others are projection neurons
The actions of GABA are primarily mediated by ionotropic GABAA receptors
Box 8.2 Clinical Applications GABA and Epilepsy
GABA also signals using metabotropic GABAB receptors