Psychopharmacology 3e Chapter 5 Outline

Catecholamines

 

Catecholamine Synthesis, Release, and Inactivation

Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting stepin catecholamine synthesis
Catecholamines are stored in and released from synaptic vesicles
Catecholamine inactivation occurs through the combination of reuptake and metabolism

Organization and Function of the Dopaminergic System

Two important dopaminergic cell groups are found in the midbrain
Ascending dopamine pathways have been implicated in several important behavioral functions
Box 5.1 Clinical Applications Mutations That Affect Dopamine Neurotransmission
There are five main subtypes of dopamine receptors organized into D1- and D2-like families
Dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists affect locomotor activity and other behavioral functions
Box 5.2 The Cutting Edge Using Molecular Genetics to Study the Dopaminergic System

Organization and Function of the Noradrenergic System

Norepinephrine is an important transmitter in both the central and peripheral nervous systems
Norepinephrine and epinephrine act through α- and β-adrenergic receptors
The central noradrenergic system plays a significant role in arousal, cognition, and the consolidation of emotional memories
Several medications work by stimulating or inhibiting peripheral adrenergic receptors