Psychopharmacology 3e Chapter 3 Outline

Chemical Signaling by Neurotransmitters and Hormones


Chemical Signaling between Nerve Cells

Neurotransmitter Synthesis, Release, and Inactivation

Neurotransmitters encompass several different kinds of chemical substances
Box 3.1 Clinical Applications Orexin-Based Medications: New Approaches to the Treatment of Sleep Disorders
Neuropeptides are synthesized by a different mechanism than other transmitters
Neuromodulators are chemicals that don’t act like typical neurotransmitters
Classical transmitter release involves exocytosis and recycling of synaptic vesicles
Lipid and gaseous transmitters are not released from synaptic vesicles
Several mechanisms control the rate of neurotransmitter release by nerve cells
Neurotransmitters are inactivated by reuptake and by enzymatic breakdown

Neurotransmitter Receptors and Second-Messenger Systems

There are two major families of neurotransmitter receptors
Second messengers work by activating specific protein kinases within a cell
Tyrosine kinase receptors mediate the effects of neurotrophic factors

Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission

Synaptic Plasticity

The Endocrine System

Endocrine glands can secrete multiple hormones
Mechanisms of hormone action vary
Why is the endocrine system important to pharmacologists?
Box 3.2 Pharmacology in Action Sex Hormones and Drug Abuse