Psychopharmacology 3e Chapter 16 Outline

Inhalants, GHB, and Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids

 

Inhalants

Background

Inhalants comprise a range of substances including volatile solvents, fuels, halogenated hydrocarbons, anesthetics, and nitrites
Abused inhalants are rapidly absorbed and readily enter the brain
These substances are particularly favored by children and adolescents

Behavioral and Neural Effects

Many inhalant effects are similar to alcohol intoxication
Chronic inhalant use can lead to tolerance and dependence
Rewarding and reinforcing effects have been demonstrated in animals
Inhalants have complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) function and behavioral activity
Health risks have been associated with inhalant abuse

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate

Background

Behavioral and Neural Effects

GHB produces behavioral sedation, intoxication, and learning deficits
GHB and its precursors have reinforcing properties
Effects of GHB are mediated by multiple mechanisms

Medical and Recreational Uses of GHB

GHB is used therapeutically for the treatment of narcolepsy and alcoholism
GHB has significant abuse potential when used recreationally

Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids

Background and History

Anabolic–androgenic steroids are structurally related to testosterone
Anabolic–androgenic steroids were developed to help build muscle mass and enhance athletic performance
Anabolic–androgenic steroids are currently taken by many adolescent and adult men
Anabolic–androgenic steroids are taken in specific patterns and combinations

Pharmacology of Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids

Research is beginning to unravel the mechanism of action of anabolic–androgenic steroids on muscle
Many adverse side effects are associated with anabolic–androgenic steroid use
Regular anabolic–androgenic steroid use causes dependence in some individuals
Box 16.1 Of Special Interest Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids and “Roid Rage”
Testosterone has an important role in treating hypogonadism