Belmonte F. M., Macedo, C. R., Day, P. F., Saconato, H., and Fernandes Moça Trevisani, V. (2013). Interventions for treating traumatised permanent front teeth: luxated (dislodged) teeth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006203. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006203.pub2.

Unfortunately, no studies could be included within this review due to the poor nature of the evidence currently available.


Bishara, S. E. (1999). Third molars: a dilemma! Or is it? American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 115, 628–33. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(99)70287-8] [PubMed: 10358244]


Cobourne, M. T., Williams, A., and Harrison, M. (2014). A Guideline for the Extraction of First Permanent Molars in Children (Update of the 2009 Guidelines). London: Royal College of Surgeons of England.


Costa, L. A., Ribeiro, C. C., Cantanhede, L. M., Santiago Júnior, J. F., de Mendonça, M. R., and Pereira, A. L. (2017). Treatments for intrusive luxation in permanent teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 46, 214–29. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2016.08.021] [PubMed: 27649968]

A review of the current literature in this area, which suggests the degree of root formation and the severity of intrusion are key influences on the outcome of these cases. The authors highlight the need for higher-quality investigations to be undertaken.


Day, P. F., Kindelan, S. A., Spencer, J. R., Kindelan, J. D., and Duggal, M. S. (2008). Dental trauma: part 2. Managing poor prognosis anterior teeth – treatment options for the subsequent space in a growing patient. Journal of Orthodontics, 35, 143–55. [DOI: 10.1179/146531207225022590] [PubMed: 18809778]

An excellent review of the treatment options for the traumatic loss of an incisor in a growing patient.


Dental Trauma Guide (DTG):

The definitive guide to the management of dental injuries.


Harradine, N. W. T., Pearson, M. H., and Toth, B. (1998). The effect of extraction of third molars on late lower incisor crowding: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Orthodontics, 25, 117–22. [DOI: 10.1093/ortho/25.2.117] [PubMed: 9668994].

This excellent study is essential reading.


International Association of Dental Traumatology:


Kindelan, S. A., Day, P. F., Kindelan, J. D., Spencer, J. R., and Duggal, M. S. (2008). Dental trauma: an overview of its influence on the management of orthodontic treatment. Part 1. Journal of Orthodontics, 35, 68–78. [DOI: 10.1179/146531207225022482] [PubMed: 18525070]

An excellent summary of the impact of dental trauma on orthodontic management.


Little, R. M., Reidel, R. A., and Artun, J. (1981). An evaluation of changes in mandibular anterior alignment from 10–20 years postretention. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 93, 423–8. [PubMed: 3163221]

Classic paper. The authors found that lower labial segment crowding tends to increase even following extractions and appliance therapy.


Mittal, M., Murray, A. M., and Sandler, J. (2011). Maxillary labial frenectomy: indications and technique. Dental Update, 38, 159–62. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2011.38.3.159] [PubMed: 21667829].


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2000). Guidance on the Extraction of Wisdom Teeth. London: NICE.


Shashua, D. and Artun, J. (1999). Relapse after orthodontic correction of maxillary median diastema: a follow-up evaluation of consecutive cases. The Angle Orthodontist, 69, 257–63. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1999)069<0257:RAOCOM>2.3.CO;2] [PubMed: 10371432].


Thiruvenkatachari, B., Harrison, J., Worthington, H., and O’Brien, K. (2015). Early orthodontic treatment for class II malocclusions reduced the chance of incisal trauma: results of a Cochrane systemic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 148, 47–59. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.01.030] [PubMed: 26124027]


Waldon, K., Barber, S. K., Spencer, R. J., and Duggal, M. S. (2012). Indications for the use of auto-transplantation of teeth in the child and adolescent. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 13, 210–16. [DOI: 10.1007/BF03262872] [PubMed: 22883361]

This paper demonstrated the indications for the use of the autotransplantation techniques with seven clinical examples.

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