Bayliss, C. L. (2017). Informed consent: what’s new? Dental Update, 44, 109–13.


Dibiase, A. T. and Sandler, P. J. (2001). Does orthodontics damage faces? Dental Update, 28, 98–102. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2001.28.2.98] [PubMed: 11819964].

The possible unfavourable effects of orthodontics on the face are debated. Of particular relevance to this chapter is the discussion regarding the unpredictability of the effect of extractions on the facial profile.


Kirshen, R. H., O’Higgins, E. A., and Lee, R. T. (2000). The Royal London Space Planning: an integration of space analysis and treatment planning. Part 1: assessing the space required to meet treatment objectives. Part II: the effect of other treatment procedures on space. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 448–55, 456–61. [DOI: 10.1067/mod.2000.109031] [PubMed: 11029742] and [DOI: 10.1067/mod.2000.109032] [PubMed: 11029743]

This paper describes one possible approach to space analysis.


Proffit, W. R., Fields, H. R., and Sarver, D. M. (2018). Contemporary Orthodontics (6th edn). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Section II on orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning provides more detailed information on the development of a problem list as part of the treatment planning process.

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