Björk, A. (2010). Guide to superimposition of profile radiographs by “The Structural Method”.

A comprehensive guide for undertaking cephalometric superimpositions.


Björk, A. and Skieller, V. (1977). Growth of the maxilla in three dimensions as revealed radiographically by the implant method. British Journal of Orthodontics, 4, 53–64. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.4.2.53] [PubMed: 273440]

Björk, A. and Skieller, V. (1983). Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. European Journal of Orthodontics, 5, 1–46. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/5.1.1] [PubMed: 6572593]

Two historic papers that used metal implants to examine facial growth.


Drage, N., Carmichael, F., and Brown, J. (2010). Radiation protection: protection of patients undergoing cone beam computed tomography examinations. Dental Update, 37, 542–8. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2010.37.8.542] [PubMed: 21137846].

Much of the content on radiation protection is relevant to any radiograph.


Ferguson, J. W., Evans, R. I. W., and Cheng, L. H. H. (1992). Diagnostic accuracy and observer performance in the diagnosis of abnormalities in the anterior maxilla: a comparison of panoramic with intra-oral radiography. British Dental Journal, 173, 265–71. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4808024] [PubMed: 1449856].


Gaddam, R., Shashikumar, H. C., Lokesh, N. K., Suma, T., Arya, S., and Swetha, G. S. (2015). Assessment of image distortion from head rotation in lateral cephalometry. Journal of International Oral Health, 7, 35–40. [PubMed: 26124597]

An illustration of the effect of positioning errors on linear and angular measurements.


Houston, W. J. B. (1979). The current status of facial growth prediction. British Journal of Orthodontics, 6, 11–17. [PubMed: 396940].


Houston, W. J. B. (1986). Sources of error in measurements from cephalometric radiographs. European Journal of Orthodontics, 8, 149–51. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/8.3.149] [PubMed: 3464438]


Isaacson, K. G., Thom, A. R., Horner, K., and Whaites, E. (2015). Guidelines for the Use of Radiographs in Clinical Orthodontics (4th edn). London: British Orthodontic Society.

An excellent publication that explains the legislative background to taking radiographs and the need to justify every exposure. It contains several helpful flow charts to assist in deciding whether or not to take a radiograph.


Jacobson, A. and Jacobson R. L. (2006). Radiographic Cephalometry: From Basics to 3-D imaging (2nd edn). Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing, USA.

An authoritative book. This second edition includes a comprehensive description of many methods for analysis, a CD-ROM with practical information for tracing a cephalometric manually and digitally, and detailed description of digital and 3D imaging methods.


Kamoon, A., Dermaut, L., and Verbeek, R. (2001). The clinical significance of error measurement in the interpretation of treatment results. European Journal of Orthodontics, 23, 569–78. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/23.5.569] [PubMed: 11668876].

An interesting paper which puts into context cephalometric errors in the interpretation of small reported treatment changes.


McNamara, J. A. (1984). A method of cephalometric evaluation. American Journal of Orthodontics, 86, 449–69. [DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9416(84)90352-X] [PubMed: 6594933]

The original paper describing nasion perpendicular.


Millet, D. and Gravely, J. F. (1991). The assessment of antero-posterior dental base relationships. British Journal of Orthodontics, 18, 285–97. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.18.4.285] [PubMed: 1782187]

An interesting discussion around the reliability and validity of the Eastman conversion, Ballard’s and Wits analysis.


Sedentexct Project (2011). Radiation Protection: Cone Beam CT for Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology (Evidence Based Guidelines). Luxembourg: European Commission.

An important and authoritative document that comprises detailed guidelines prepared by a systematic review of the current available evidence.

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