Drage, N. (2018). Cone beam computed tomography in orthodontics. Ortho Update, 11, 27–30. [DOI: 10.12968/ortu.2018.11.1.27]

This provides a contemporary overview of CBCT in orthodontics, focusing on selection criteria, dose reduction, and current guidance regarding reporting.


Isaacson, K. G., Thom, A. R., Atack, N. E., Horner, K., and Waites, E. (2015). Guidelines for the Use of Orthodontic Radiographs in Clinical Orthodontics (4th edn). London: British Orthodontic Society.

These radiographic guidelines have been specifically written for orthodontics and provide an excellent overview of appropriate use of radiographic records in orthodontics.


Larson, B. E., Vaubel, C. J., and Grunheid, T. (2013). Effectiveness of computer-assisted orthodontic treatment technology to achieve predicted outcomes. Angle Orthodontist, 83, 557–62. [DOI: 10.2319/080612-635.1] [PubMed: 23181776]

Grauer, D. and Proffit, W. R. (2011). Accuracy in tooth positioning with a fully customized lingual orthodontic appliance. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 140, 433–43. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.01.020] [PubMed: 21889089]

These two papers provide the reader with an insight into the development and applications of technology advances in orthodontics.


Patel, A., Burden, D. J., and Sandler, J. (2009). Medical disorders and orthodontics. Journal of Orthodontics, 36, 1–21. [DOI: 10.1179/14653120722851] [PubMed: 19934236].

This comprehensive article provides an excellent in-depth review of medical disorders that could affect orthodontic treatment.


Sarver, D. M. (2001). The importance of incisor positioning in the esthetic smile: the smile arc. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 120, 98–111. [DOI: 10.1067/mod.2001.114301] [PubMed: 11500650].

This paper provides an overview of the important topic of smile aesthetics.


Sarver, D. M. (2016). Special considerations in diagnosis and treatment planning. In: Graber, L., Vanarsdall, R., Vig, K., and Huang, G. (eds) Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques (6th edn), pp. 245–88. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

This chapter provides a detailed overview of diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics, with an emphasis on aesthetics.

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