Björk, A. and Skieller, V. (1983). Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. European Journal of Orthodontics, 5, 1–46. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/5.1.1] [PubMed: 6572593]

A summary of the implant work on mandibular growth rotations.


Enlow, D. H. and Hans M. G. (2008). Essentials of Facial Growth (2nd edn). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

The Bible of facial growth.


Henneman, S., Von den Hoff, J. W., and Maltha, J. C. (2008). Mechanobiology of tooth movement. European Journal of Orthodontics, 30, 299–306. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjn020] [PubMed: 18540017]

An up-to-date and easy-to-understand review of the biology of orthodontic tooth movement.


Houston, W. J. B. (1979). The current status of facial growth prediction: a review. British Journal of Orthodontics, 6, 11–17. [PubMed: 396940].

An authoritative assessment of the value of growth prediction.


Houston, W. J. B. (1988). Mandibular growth rotations – their mechanism and importance. European Journal of Orthodontics, 10, 369–73. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/10.4.369] [PubMed: 3061834]

A concise review of the aetiology and clinical importance of growth rotations.


Sandy, J. R., Farndale, R. W., and Meikle, M. C. (1993). Recent advances in understanding mechanically induced bone remodelling and their relevance to orthodontic theory and practice. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 103, 212–22. [DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(93)70002-6] [PubMed: 8456777]

Still a key paper in understanding the cellular events behind orthodontic tooth movement.

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