Akram, A. J., Jerreat, A. S., Woodford, J., Sandy, J. R., and Ireland, A. J. (2011). Development of a condition-specific measure to assess quality of life in patients with hypodontia. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 14, 160–7. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2011.01517.x] [PubMed: 21771271]

This paper highlights the potential issues for people with hypodontia.


Allen, P. F., Anweigi, L., and Ziada, H. (2016). A prospective study of the performance of resin-bonded bridgework in patients with hypodontia. Journal of Dentistry, 50, 69–73. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.05.003] [PubMed: 27178339]


Bacetti, T. (1998). A controlled study of associated dental anomalies. Angle Orthodontist, 68, 267–74. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1998)068<0267:ACSOAD>2.3.CO;2] [PubMed: 9622764]


Bjerklin, K., Al-Najjar, M., Karestedt, H., and Andren, A. (2008). Agenesis of mandibular second premolars with retained primary molars. A longitudinal radiographic study of 99 subjects from 12 years of age to adulthood. European Journal of Orthodontics, 20, 254–61. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjn027] [PubMed: 18540014]

A key paper providing evidence about the longevity of primary teeth.


Cobourne, M. T. (2007). Familial human hypodontia – is it all in the genes? British Dental Journal, 203, 203–8. [DOI: 10.1038/bdj.2007.732] [PubMed: 17721480]

An accessible introduction to the role of genes in hypodontia.


Durey, K. A., Nixon, P. J., Robinson, S., and Chan, M. F. W. Y. (2011). Resin bonded bridges: techniques for success. British Dental Journal, 211, 113–8. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.619] [PubMed: 21836574]

A useful overview of considerations when planning resin-bonded bridges.


Garnett, M. J., Wassell, R. W., Jepson, N. J., and Nohl, F. S. (2006). Survival of resin-bonded bridgework provided for post-orthodontic hypodontia patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors. British Dental Journal, 201, 527–34. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4814160] [PubMed: 17057683]


Gill, D. S. and Barker, C. S. (2015). The multidisciplinary management of hypodontia: a team approach. British Dental Journal, 218, 143–9. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.52] [PubMed: 25686431]

A summary of treatment approaches for hypodontia throughout dental development.


Hosseini, M., Worsaae, N., Schiodt, M., and Gotfredsen, K. (2013). A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis. Clinical Oral Implant Research, 24, 1078–87. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2012.02514.x] [PubMed: 22708959]


Jonsson, T. and Sigurdsson, T. J. (2004). Autotransplantation of premolars to premolar sites. A long-term follow-up study of 40 consecutive patients. American Journal of Orthodontics Dentofacial Orthopedics, 125, 668–75. [DOI: 10.1016/S088954060301031X] [PubMed: 15179391]

This study demonstrates the success of tooth transplantation in hypodontia.


Khalaf, K., Miskelly, J., Voge, E., and Macfarlane, T. V. (2014). Prevalence of hypodontia and associated factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Orthodontics, 41, 299–316. [DOI: 10.1179/1465313314Y.0000000116] [PubMed: 25404667]


King, P., Maiorana, C., Luthardt, R. G., Sondell, K., Oland, J., Galindo-Moreno, P., et al. (2016). Clinical and radiographic evaluation of a small diameter dental implant used for the restoration of patients with permanent tooth agenesis in the maxillary and mandibular incisor regions: a 36-month follow-up. International Journal of Prosthodontics, 29, 147–53. [DOI: 10.11607/ijp.4444] [PubMed: 26929953]


Kotecha S., Turner P. J., Dietrich T., and Dhopatkar A. (2013). The impact of tooth agenesis on oral health-related quality of life in children. Journal of Orthodontics, 20, 122–9. [DOI: 10.1179/1465313312Y.0000000035] [PubMed: 23794692]


Lindqvist, B. (1980). Extraction of deciduous second molar in hypodontia. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2, 173–81. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/2.3.173] [PubMed: 6935067]

An early study promoting the early extraction of primary molars to encourage spontaneous space closure.


Locker, D., Jokovic, A., Prakash, P., and Tompson, B. (2010). Oral health-related quality of life in children with oligodontia. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 20, 8–14. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2009.01001.x] [PubMed: 20059588]

This study found children with hypodontia have worse OHRQoL than children with caries or other malocclusions.


Meaney, S., Anweigi, L., Ziada, H., and Allen, F. (2012). The impact of hypodontia: a qualitative study on the experiences of patients. European Journal of Orthodontics, 34, 547–52. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjr061] [PubMed: 21693681]

An interesting paper outlining the impact of the hypodontia treatment journey.


Nordquist, G. G. and McNeil, R. W. (1975). Orthodontic vs. restorative treatment of congenitally absent lateral incisor – long term occlusal and periodontal evaluation. Journal of Periodontology, 46, 139–43. [DOI: 10.1902/jop.1975.46.3.139] [PubMed: 1054757]

A classic paper—findings indicate space closure has periodontal health benefits and no detriment to the occlusion.


Olsen, T. M. and Kokich, V. G. (2010). Postorthodontic root approximation after opening space for maxillary lateral incisor implants. American Journal of Orthodontics Dentofacial Orthopedics, 137, e1–158. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.08.024] [PubMed: 20152659]

This study emphasizes the risk of post-treatment relapse of root position.


Polder, B. J., Van’t Hof, M. A., Van der Linder, F. P. G. M., and Kuijpers-Jagtman, A. M. (2004). A meta-analysis of the prevalence of dental agenesis of permanent teeth. Community Dental Oral Epidemiology, 32, 217–26. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2004.00158.x] [PubMed: 15151692]


Robertsson, S. and Mohlin, B. (2000). The congenitally missing upper lateral incisor. A retrospective study of orthodontic space closure versus restorative treatment. European Journal of Orthodontics, 22, 697–710. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/22.6.697] [PubMed: 11212605]

A more recent study of space opening compared to space closure with similar findings.


Savarrio, L. and McIntyre, G. T. (2005). To open or close the space – that is the missing lateral incisor question. Dental Update, 32, 16–25. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2005.32.1.16] [PubMed: 15739660]

A discussion around decision-making for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis including useful summaries of the decision pathway and factors to consider.


Zimmer, B., Schelper, I., and Seifi-Shirvandeh, N. (2007). Localized orthodontic space closure for unilateral aplasia of lower second premolars. European Journal of Orthodontics, 29, 210–16. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjm009] [PubMed: 17489002]

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