Yu, Y., Sun, J., Lai, W., Wu, T., Koshy, S., and Shi, Z. (2013). Interventions for managing relapse of the lower front teeth after orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 9, Art. No.: CD008734. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008734.pub2

This review included aligner treatment but no studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were identified.


Azaripour, A., Weusmann, J., Mahmoodi, B., Peppas, D., Gerhold-Ay, A., Van Noorden, C. J., et al. (2015). Braces versus Invisalign®: gingival parameters and patients’ satisfaction during treatment: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health, 15, 69. [DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0060-4] [PubMed: 26104387]

Evidence that Invisalign® treatment is associated with better gingival health and patient satisfaction, but caution is advised due to limitations in the methodology.


Best, A. D., Shroff, B., Carrico, C. K., and Lindauer, S. J. (2017). Treatment management between orthodontists and general practitioners performing clear aligner therapy. Angle Orthodontist, 87, 432–9. [DOI: 10.2319/062616-500.1] [PubMed: 27874282]

An interesting comparison of treatment perspectives between different types of clinicians from the USA.


Bowman, S. J. (2017). Improving the predictability of clear aligners. Seminars in Orthodontics, 23, 65–75. [DOI: 10.1053/j.sodo.2016.10.005]

Discussion of some of the common aligner problems and possible solutions.


Gay, G., Ravera, S., Castrflorio, T., Garino, F., Rossini, G., Parrini, S., et al. (2017). Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study. Progress in Orthodontics. 18, 12. [DOI: 10.1186/s40510-017-0166-0] [PubMed: 28503724]

A prospective cohort study that suggests root resorption with aligners is similar to other systems using light forces.


Qureshi, A. (2008). The Inman Aligner for anterior tooth alignment. Dental Update, 35, 569–71, 574–6. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2008.35.8.569] [PubMed: 19055094]

A summary of the design and uses of the most commonly used commercial spring aligner appliance.


Noah, J. H., Sharma, S., Roberts-Harry, D., and Qureshi, T. (2015). A discerning approach to simple aesthetic orthodontics. British Dental Journal, 218, 157–66. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.55] [PubMed: 25686433]

An interesting discussion of the purpose and ethics of adult orthodontics, including the scope and limitations of aligner treatment.


Paquette, D. E., Colville, C., and Wheeler, T. (2016). Clear aligner treatment. In: Graber, L. W. and Vanarsdall, R. L. (eds) Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques (6th edn), pp. 778–811. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

This chapter provides a detailed overview of the history and current approach to the use of clear aligners, focusing principally on Invisalign®.


Tuncay, O. C. (2006). The Invisalign® System. New Malden: Quintessence Books.

The original Invisalign® textbook, which although slightly outdated now, does provide a historical perspective to the system.


Weihong, L., Wang, S., and Zhang, Y. (2015). The effectiveness of the Invisalign appliance in extraction cases using the ABO model grading system: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8, 8276–82. [PubMed: 26221410]

A trial to compare fixed appliances and aligners for extraction treatment in adults. Limitations were noted in the methodology.


Wheeler, T. T. (2017). Orthodontic clear aligner treatment. Seminars in Orthodontics, 23, 83–6. [DOI: 10.1053/j.sodo.2016.10.009]

A paper describing the types of malocclusion that can be treatment with aligners.


White, D. W., Julien, K. C., Jacob, H., Campbell, P. M., and Buschang, P. H. (2017). Discomfort associated with Invisalign and traditional brackets: a randomized prospective trial. Angle Orthodontist, 87, 801–8. [DOI: 10.2319/091416-687.1] [PubMed: 28753032]

This trial suggests aligner treatment may slightly reduce pain experience and analgesic use.


Zheng, M., Lui, R., Ni, Z., and Yu, Z. (2017). Efficiency, effectiveness and treatment stability of clear aligners: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 20, 127–33. [DOI: 10.1111/ocr.12177] [PubMed: 28547915]

This review found a lack of evidence to support claims about the effectiveness of orthodontic aligners.

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