Boyd, R. L., Leggot, P. J., Quinn, R. S., Eakle, W. S., and Chambers, D. (1989). Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 96, 191–9. [DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(89)90455-1] [PubMed: 2773862]

The periodontal implications of orthodontic treatments in adults are discussed.


Johal, A. and Battagel, J. M. (2001). Current principles in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea with mandibular advancement appliances. British Dental Journal, 190, 532–6. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4801025] [PubMed: 11411887]

This paper provides a good overview of the use of mandibular advancement splints in the treatment of OSA, emphasizing a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.


Nattrass, C. and Sandy, J. R. (1995). Adult orthodontics – a review. British Journal of Orthodontics, 22, 331–7. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.22.4.331] [PubMed: 8580099].

This review covers a range of issues involved in adult orthodontics.


Ong, M. A., Wang, H. -L., and Smith, F. N. (1998). Interrelationship between periodontics and adult orthodontics. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25, 271–7. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02440.x] [PubMed: 9565276]

As the title suggests, this review describes the interface between periodontal and orthodontic treatment.


Shah, H. V., Boyd, S. A., Sandy, J. R., and Ireland, A. J. (2011). Aesthetic labial appliances – an update. Orthodontic Update, 4, 70–7. [DOI: 10.12968/ortu.2011.4.3.70]


Shelton, A. T., Hodge, T. M., and Scott, P. (2018). Lingual orthodontics – clinical applications and patient information. Dental Update, 45, 141–8. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2018.45.2.141]

This paper provides a contemporary view of lingual orthodontics.


Wiechmann, D., Rummel, V., Thalheim, A., Simon, J. -S., and Wiechmann, L. (2003). Customized brackets and archwires for lingual orthodontic treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 124, 593–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.08.008] [PubMed: 14614428]

This paper describes how computer-aided design and manufacturing technology was initially used to produce custom-made brackets to overcome some of the problems of lingual orthodontics.

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